paper addresses general requirements of compaction of granular
soils with respect to design, execution, monitoring and quality
control. The advantages and limitations of different field investigation
methods are discussed. Methods for deep compaction of granular
soils are presented, and their advantages and limitations discussed.
A concept describing the compaction mechanism in granular soils
is proposed. Finally, the practical importance of the increase
of soil strength after compaction, and pre-consolidation effects
due to increase of lateral stresses are explained.
report contains an overview of geophysical and civil engineering
non-destructive test methods, which may be applied to the
study of stone and rock. Mechanical and electrical methods
are presented and their technical and economical feasibility
are estimated. The mechanical methods contain the seismic,
ultrasonic, hammer and the acoustic emission methods. The
electrical methods are the radar, resistivity and the electromagnetic